Texas Almanac searchable town database

with population figures from the 2010 U.S. census, estimates for 2016, as well as a complete list of the more than 17,000 towns, including those that no longer exist.

Population History of Counties, 1850 – 2010

Population History of Selected Cities, 1850 – 2000

Official 2010 U.S. Census for Texas

with statistics on state, county and town levels on the website.

2017 metro estimated populations
Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

 Click to enlarge.

From the Almanac

population history of Texas by decade census