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Texas state government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches under the Texas Constitution adopted in 1876. The chief executive is the Governor, whose term is for four years. Other elected state officials with executive responsibilities include the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Commissioner of the General Land Office, and Commissioner of Agriculture. The terms of those officials are also four years. The Secretary of State and the Commissioner of Education are appointed by the Governor. Except for making numerous appointments and calling special sessions of the Legislature, the Governor’s powers are limited in comparison with those in most states.

The Governor’s office welcomes comments and concerns, which are relayed to government officials who may offer assistance. Send a message through the webform at:

Or call the Citizen’s Opinion Hotline: 1 (800) 252-9600

State Government Income and Expenditures

Taxes are the state government’s primary source of income. On this and the following pages are summaries of state income and expenditures, percent change from previous year, tax collections, tax revenue by type of tax, a summary of the state budgets for the 2018–2019 and 2020–2021 bienniums, Texas Lottery income and expenditures, and the amount of federal payments to state agencies. Totals may not sum due to rounding.

  State Revenues and Expenditures  


State Government Budget Summary, 2020–2021 Biennium

The Legislative Budget Board’s (LBB) baseline appropriations for state government operations for the 2020–2021 biennium total $250.7 billion from All Funds functions of state government. The funding is a $14.9 billion, or 6.3 percent, increase from the 2018–2019 biennial level of $235.8 billion. General Revenue Funds, including funds dedicated within the General Revenue Fund, total $118.9 billion for the 2020–2021 biennium, an increase of $10.4 billion, or 9.5 percent, from the adjusted 2018–2019 biennial spending level of $108.5 billion. The LBB recommended appropriations for the 2020–2021 biennium are within the Comptroller’s 2018–2019 Biennial Revenue Estimate.

  State Budget 2020-2021  


Texas Legislature

The Texas Legislature is made up of both a house and a senate, and meets every two years. The Texas Legislature has 181 members: 31 in the Senate, who are elected to four-year overlapping terms, and 150 in the House of Representatives, who are elected to two-year terms. Regular sessions convene on the second Tuesday of January in odd-numbered years, but the governor may call special sessions. Article III of the Texas Constitution deals with the legislative branch.

The judiciary of the state consists of nine members of the State Supreme Court; nine members of the Court of Criminal Appeals; 80 of the courts of appeals; 443 of the state district courts, including 13 criminal district courts; 494 county court judges; 821 justices of the peace; and more than 1,400 municipal court judges. Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals and courts of appeals are elected to 6-year, overlapping terms. District court judges are elected to 4-year terms.

In addition to its system of formal courts, the State of Texas has established 17 Alternative Dispute Resolution Centers. The centers help ease the caseload of Texas courts by using mediation, arbitration, negotiation and moderated settlement conferences to handle disputes without resorting to more costly, time-consuming court actions.

Centers are located in Amarillo, Austin, Beaumont, Bryan, Conroe, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Denton, El Paso, Fort Worth, Houston, Kerrville, Lubbock, Paris, Richmond, San Antonio and Waco.

Other State Government information: