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Physical Features: East Texas county; rolling to hilly, over half forested; drains to Sabine River, Little Cypress Creek, Lake O’ the Pines, Lake Gilmer, Lake Gladewater.
Economy: Manufacturing, oil, gas, agribusiness, timber.
History: Caddoes; reduced by epidemics in 1700s. Cherokees in area in 1820s. Anglo-American settlement in mid-1830s. County created from Harrison, Nacogdoches counties in 1846, organized the same year; named for U.S. Secretary of State A.P. Upshur.
Race/Ethnicity: (In percent) Anglo, 80.8; Black, 8.5; Hispanic, 7.9; Asian, 0.5; Other, 3.1.
Vital Statistics, annual: Births, 491; deaths, 449; marriages, 239; divorces, 189.
Recreation: Scenic trails, hunting, fishing, fall foliage, East Texas Yamboree in October.
Minerals: Oil, gas, sand, gravel.
Agriculture: Dairies, beef cattle, hay, vegetable crops, poultry. Market value $60.6 million. Timber a major product.
GILMER (5,204) county seat; manufacturing, communications, electric power; hospital; museums; Texas Motorized Trails.