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Physical Features: East central county of partly level Blackland; southeast rolling to Post Oak Belt; Brazos, Little rivers; Alcoa Lake.
Economy: Lignite mining, aluminum, other manufacturing, agribusiness.
History: Lipan Apaches, Tonkawas and Comanches in area. Mission San Francisco Xavier established 1745–1748. Anglo-American settlers arrived in 1834 and a private fort was established in 1840 at Bryant Station to help protect the settlers from Indian raids. County created in 1836 from municipality named for Ben Milam, a leader who died at the battle for San Antonio in December 1835; organized in 1837.
Race/Ethnicity: (In percent) Anglo, 64.1; Black, 10.1; Hispanic, 24.8; Asian, 0.6; Other, 2.5.
Vital Statistics, annual: Births, 312; deaths, 292; marriages, 125; divorces, 92.
Recreation: Fishing, hunting; historic sites include Fort Sullivan, Indian battlegrounds, mission sites; museum in old jail at Cameron, El Camino Real.
Minerals: Large lignite deposits, barite, limited oil and gas production.
Agriculture: Cattle, poultry (first in number of turkeys), corn. Market value $144.7 million.
CAMERON (5,349) county seat; government/services, manufacturing; hospital, library; dewberry festival in April.
ROCKDALE (5,325) aluminum plant, government/services; hospital, juvenile detention center.
The Milam County Courthouse in Cameron. Photo by Larry D. Moore (CC).