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Physical Features: Forested, hilly East Texas county, slopes to Trinity and Neches rivers; Lake Palestine; sandy, clay, black soils; pines, hardwoods.
Economy: Manufacturing, distribution, agribusiness, tourism; hunting and fishing leases; prison units.
History: Comanche, Waco, other tribes. Anglo-American settlers arrived in the 1830s. Antebellum slaveholding area. County created and organized from Houston County in 1846; named for K.L. Anderson, last vice president of the Republic of Texas.
Race/Ethnicity: (In percent) Anglo, 59.9; Black, 21.7; Hispanic, 17.0; Asian, 0.8; Other, 2.3.
Vital Statistics, annual: Births, 571; deaths, 639; marriages, 396; divorces, 130.
Recreation: Fishing, hunting, streams, lakes; dogwood trails; national wildlife refuge; historic sites; railroad park; museums.
Minerals: Oil and gas.
Agriculture: Cattle, hay, truck vegetables, melons, pecans, peaches. Market value $44.6 million. Timber sold.
PALESTINE (18,634), county seat; clothing, metal, wood products; transportation and agribusiness center; scientific balloon station; historic bakery; library; vocational-technical facilities; hospitals; community college; dulcimer festival in March, hot pepper festival in October.
Other towns include: Cayuga (137); Elkhart (1,358); Frankston (1,197), tourism, packaging industry, oil and gas, commuters to Tyler; depot museum, Square Fair in October; Montalba (110); Neches (175); and Tennessee Colony (300) site of state prisons.